Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by thymosin beta-4 is associated with gastric cancer cell migration
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- Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by thymosin beta-4 is associated with gastric cancer cell migration
- Y K Ryu; Y S Lee; G H Lee; K S Song; Yong Sung Kim; E Y Moon
- Bibliographic Citation
- International Journal of Cancer, vol. 131, no. 9, pp. 2067-2077
- Publication Year
- Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4), actin-sequestering protein, plays important roles in many cellular functions including cancer cell migrations. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) in Wnt signaling pathway is a key molecule to control intercellular interaction. Here, we investigated whether GSK-3 activity is regulated by Tβ4 and it is associated with Tβ4-mediated migration in gastric cancer cells. Various expression level of Tβ4 was observed in human gastric tumor tissues. Migration in gastric cancer cells, SNU638 and SNU668, was dependent on a relative expression level of Tβ4. Cell migration was higher in SNU668 with a higher expression level of Tβ4 than that in SNU638 with a lower Tβ4. Although the level of phosphorylated(p)-GSK-3α (inactive), β-catenin, E-cadherin and E-cadherin:β-catenin complex was relatively higher, p-GSK-3β (inactive) was lower in SNU638 compared to those in SNU668 cells. LiCl, GSK-3α/β inhibitor, reduced lung metastasis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and SNU668 cell migration. Small interference (si)RNA of GSK-3α increased SNU638 cell migration in accordance with the reduction of E-cadherin:β-catenin complex formation through a decrease in β-catenin and E-cadherin. Expression level of GSK-3α/β, β-catenin and E-cadherin in SNU668 and SNU638 was reversed by Tβ4-siRNA and by the treatment with acetylated-serine-aspartic acid-lysine-proline (SDKP) tetrapeptide of Tβ4, respectively. E-cadherin expression in SNU638 cells was decreased by β-catenin-siRNA. PD98059, MEK inhibitor, or U0126, ERK inhibitor, reduced SNU668 cell migration accompanying an increase in p-GSK-3α, β-catenin and E-cadherin. Taken together, data indicated that the expression of GSK-3α, β-catenin and E-cadherin could be negatively regulated by Tβ4-induced ERK phosphorylation. It suggests that Tβ4 could be a novel regulator to control Wnt signaling pathways.
- β-catenincell migrationE-cadherinERKgastric cancer cellGSK-3SNU638SNU668thymosin beta-4Wnt
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