Suppression of autophagic genes sensitizes CUG2-overexpressing A549 human lung cancer cells to oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus-induced apoptosis

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Title
Suppression of autophagic genes sensitizes CUG2-overexpressing A549 human lung cancer cells to oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus-induced apoptosis
Author(s)
W Malilas; Sang Seok Koh; S Lee; R Srisuttee; I R Cho; J Moon; S Kaowinn; R N Johnston; Y H Chung
Bibliographic Citation
International Journal of Oncology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1177-1184
Publication Year
2014
Abstract
We showed in our previous study that cancer upregulated gene (CUG) 2, a novel oncogene, confers resistance to infection of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by activating Stat1-mediated signal transduction. Since many studies have reported that autophagy is involved in virus replication, we investigated whether autophagy also plays a role in the antiviral activity in A549 cells overexpressing CUG2 (A549-CUG2). We suppressed Atg5 or Beclin 1 expression using siRNA and examined its effect on the susceptibility of cells to infection by oncolytic VSV. We found that A549-CUG2 cells treated with Atg5 or Beclin 1 siRNA became susceptible to VSV infection, whereas A549-CUG2 cells treated with control siRNA were resistant. This result suggests that autophagy is involved in the antiviral response of A549-CUG2 cells. Further investigation revealed that autophagy impairment enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which resulted in inactivation of S6 kinase. Under these conditions, the levels of ISG15 transcript and protein decreased, which conferred on A549-CUG2 cell susceptibility to VSV infection. Finally, we found that overloading of H2O2 sensitized control A549-CUG2 cells to VSV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that autophagy impairment induces excessive ROS formation, which decreases S6 kinase activity and ISG15 expression, ultimately rendering the A549-CUG2 cells susceptible to VSV infection. We propose that autophagy impairment is a potential strategy for successful VSV virotherapy of CUG2-overexpressing tumors.
Keyword
Atg5AutophagyBeclin 1CUG2Vesicular stomatitis virus
ISSN
1019-6439
Publisher
Spandidos Publ Ltd
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2014.2264
Type
Article
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1. Journal Articles > Journal Articles
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