Integrative genomics analysis reveals the multilevel dysregulation and oncogenic characteristics of TEAD4 in gastric cancer

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Title
Integrative genomics analysis reveals the multilevel dysregulation and oncogenic characteristics of TEAD4 in gastric cancer
Author(s)
Byungho Lim; Jong Lyul Park; Hee Jin Kim; Young Kyu Park; Jeong Hwan Kim; Hyun Ahm Sohn; S M Noh; K S Song; W H Kim; Yong Sung Kim; Seon-Young Kim
Bibliographic Citation
Carcinogenesis, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1020-1027
Publication Year
2014
Abstract
Tumorigenesis is a consequence of failures of multistep defense mechanisms against deleterious perturbations that occur at the genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic and proteomic levels. To uncover previously unrecognized genes that undergo multilevel perturbations in gastric cancer (GC), we integrated epigenomic and transcriptomic approaches using two recently developed tools: MENT and GENT. This integrative analysis revealed that nine Hippo pathway-related genes, including components [FAT, JUB, LATS2, TEA domain family member 4 (TEAD4) and Yesassociated protein 1 (YAP1)] and targets (CRIM1, CYR61, CTGF and ITGB2), are concurrently hypomethylated at promoter CpG sites and overexpressed in GC tissues. In particular, TEAD4, a link between Hippo pathway components and targets, was significantly hypomethylated at CpG site cg21637033 (P = 3.8 × 10-20) and overexpressed (P = 5.2 × 10-10) in 108 Korean GC tissues compared with the normal counterparts. A reduced level of methylation at the TEAD4 promoter was significantly associated with poor outcomes, including large tumor size, high-grade tumors and low survival rates. Compared with normal tissues, the TEAD4 protein was more frequently found in the nuclei of tumor cells along with YAP1 in 53 GC patients, demonstrating the posttranslational activation of this protein. Moreover, the knockdown of TEAD4 resulted in the reduced growth of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and microarray analysis revealed the oncogenic properties of TEAD4 and its novel targets (ADM, ANG, ARID5B, CALD1, EDN2, FSCN1 and OSR2), which are involved in cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, the multilevel perturbations of TEAD4 at epigenetic, transcriptional and posttranslational levels may contribute to GC development.
ISSN
0143-3334
Publisher
Oxford Univ Press
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgt409
Type
Article
Appears in Collections:
Aging Convergence Research Center > 1. Journal Articles
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