Intracellular Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration in Brassica oleracea leaf induces differential expression of transporter and stress-related genes

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Title
Intracellular Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration in Brassica oleracea leaf induces differential expression of transporter and stress-related genes
Author(s)
Jeongyeo Lee; Jungeun Kim; Jae-Pil Choi; Miye Lee; M K Kim; Y H Lee; Y Hur; I S Nou; S U Park; Sung Ran MinHyeran Kim
Bibliographic Citation
BMC Genomics, vol. 17, pp. 211-211
Publication Year
2016
Abstract
Background: One of the most important members of the genus Brassica, cabbage, requires a relatively high level of calcium for normal growth (Plant Cell Environ 7: 397-405, 1984; Plant Physiol 60: 854-856, 1977). Localized Ca2+ deficiency in cabbage leaves causes tip-burn, bringing about serious economic losses (Euphytica 9:203-208, 1960; Ann Bot 43:363-372, 1979; Sci Hortic 14:131-138, 1981). Although it has been known that the occurrence of tip-burn is related to Ca2+ deficiency, there is limited information on the underlying mechanisms of tip-burn or the relationship between Ca2+ and tip-burn incidence. To obtain more information on the genetic control of tip-burn symptoms, we focused on the identification of genes differentially expressed in response to increasing intracellular Ca2+ and K+ concentrations in B. oleracea lines derived from tip-burn susceptible, tip-burn resistant cabbages (B. oleracea var. capitata), and kale (B. oleracea var. acephala). Results: We compared the levels of major macronutrient cations, including Ca2+ and K+, in three leaf segments, the leaf apex (LA), middle of leaf (LM), and leaf base (LB), of tip-burn susceptible, tip-burn resistant cabbages, and kale. Ca2+ and K+ concentrations were highest in kale, followed by tip-burn resistant and then tip-burn susceptible cabbages. These cations generally accumulated to a greater extent in the LB than in the LA. Transcriptome analysis identified 58,096 loci as putative non-redundant genes in the three leaf segments of the three B. oleracea lines and showed significant changes in expression of 27,876 loci based on Ca2+ and K+ levels. Among these, 1844 loci were identified as tip-burn related phenotype-specific genes. Tip-burn resistant cabbage and kale-specific genes were largely related to stress and transport activity based on GO annotation. Tip-burn resistant cabbage and kale plants showed phenotypes clearly indicative of heat-shock, freezing, and drought stress tolerance compared to tip-burn susceptible cabbages, demonstrating a correlation between intracellular Ca2+ and K+ concentrations and tolerance of abiotic stress with differential gene expression. We selected 165 genes that were up- or down-regulated in response to increasing Ca2+ and K+ concentrations in the three leaf segments of the three plant lines. Gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that these genes participated in regulatory metabolic processes or stress responses. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the genes involved in regulatory metabolic processes or stress responses were differentially expressed in response to increasing Ca2+ and K+ concentrations in the B. oleracea leaf. Our transcriptome data and the genes identified may serve as a starting point for understanding the mechanisms underlying essential macronutrient deficiencies in plants, as well as the features of tip-burn in cabbage and other Brassica species.
Keyword
Brassica oleraceaCalcium ionPotassium ionTranscriptome
ISSN
1471-2164
Publisher
Springer-BMC
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-2512-x
Type
Article
Appears in Collections:
Division of Biomaterials Research > Plant Systems Engineering Research > 1. Journal Articles
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