Comparative toxicity and biodistribution assessments in rats following subchronic oral exposure to copper nanoparticles and microparticles

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Title
Comparative toxicity and biodistribution assessments in rats following subchronic oral exposure to copper nanoparticles and microparticles
Author(s)
In Chul Lee; J W Ko; S H Park; N R Shin; I S Shin; C Moon; J H Kim; Hyoung-Chin Kim; J C Kim
Bibliographic Citation
Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 13, pp. 56-56
Publication Year
2016
Abstract
Background: Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) have great potential in electronics and biomedical fields because of their efficient thermodynamic and anti-microbial properties. However, their potential toxic effects and kinetic data following repeated exposure are still unclear. Methods: We evaluated the physicochemical properties of Cu NPs (25 nm) and copper microparticles (Cu MPs, 14-25 μm). Comparative in vivo toxicity of Cu NPs and Cu MPs was evaluated by conducting a 28-day repeated oral dose study at equivalent dose levels of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day (vehicle, 1 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose). We determined Cu levels in the blood, tissues, urine, and feces by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The solubility of Cu NPs and Cu MPs was 84.5 and 17.2 %, respectively, in an acidic milieu; however, they scarcely dissolved in vehicle or intestinal milieus. The specific surface area of Cu NPs and Cu MPs was determined to be 14.7 and 0.16 m2/g, respectively. Cu NPs exhibited a dose-dependent increase of Cu content in the blood and tested organs, with particularly high levels of Cu in the liver, kidney, and spleen. Only for liver and kidney increased Cu levels were found in Cu MPs-treated rats. Cu NPs caused a dose-related increase in Cu levels in urine, whereas Cu MPs did not affect the urine Cu levels. Extremely high levels of Cu were detected in the feces of Cu MPs-treated rats, whereas much lower levels were detected in the feces of Cu NPs-treated rats. A comparative in vivo toxicity study showed that Cu NPs caused damages to red blood cells, thymus, spleen, liver, and kidney at ≥200 mg/kg/days, but Cu MPs did not cause any adverse effects even at the highest dose. Conclusions: Overall, the in vivo repeated dose toxicity study of Cu NPs and Cu MPs demonstrated that large surface area and high solubility in physiological milieus could directly influence the toxicological responses and biodistribution of Cu particles when administered orally. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect levels of Cu NPs and Cu MPs were determined to be 100 and ≥400 mg/kg/day, respectively
Keyword
BiodistributionComparative toxicityCopper microparticlesCopper nanoparticles
ISSN
1743-8977
Publisher
Springer-BMC
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-016-0169-x
Type
Article
Appears in Collections:
Jeonbuk Branch Institute > Functional Biomaterial Research Center > 1. Journal Articles
Ochang Branch Institute > Division of Bioinfrastructure > 1. Journal Articles
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