Experimental in vivo models of bacterial shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome

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Title
Experimental in vivo models of bacterial shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome
Author(s)
Yu-Jin Jeong; Sung Kyun ParkSung Jin YoonYoung-Jun ParkMoo-Seung Lee
Bibliographic Citation
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1413-1425
Publication Year
2018
Abstract
Shiga toxins (Stxs) are the main virulence factors expressed by the pathogenic Stx-producing bacteria, namely, Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain Escherichia coli strains. These bacteria cause widespread outbreaks of bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis) that in severe cases can progress to life-threatening systemic complications, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)characterized by the acute onset of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and kidney dysfunction.Shiga toxicosis has a distinct pathogenesis and animal models of Stxs-associated HUS have allowed us to investigate this. Since these models will also be useful for developing effective countermeasures to Stx-associated HUS, it is important to have clinically relevant animal models of this disease. Multiple studies over the last few decades have shown that mice injected with purified Stxs developsome of the pathophysiologicalfeatures seen in HUS patients infected with the Stx-producing bacteria. These features are also efficiently recapitulated in a non-human primate model (baboons). In addition, rats, calves, chicks, piglets, and rabbits have been usedas models to study symptoms of HUS that are characteristic of each animal. These models have been very useful for testing hypotheses about how Stx induces HUS and its neurological sequelae. In this review, we describe in detail the current knowledge about the most well-studied in vivo models of Stx-induced HUS; namely, those in mice, piglets, non-human primates, and rabbits. The aim of this review is to show howeach human clinical outcome-mimicking animal model can serve as an experimental tool to promote our understanding of Stx-induced pathogenesis.
Keyword
HUSSTECShiga toxinanimal models
ISSN
1017-7825
Publisher
Korea Soc-Assoc-Inst
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1803.03012
Type
Article
Appears in Collections:
Division of Research on National Challenges > Infectious Disease Research Center > 1. Journal Articles
Division of Research on National Challenges > Environmental diseases research center > 1. Journal Articles
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