Morpho-molecular description of a new HAB species, Pseudocochlodinium profundisulcus gen. et sp. nov., and its LSU rRNA gene based genetic diversity and geographical distribution

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Title
Morpho-molecular description of a new HAB species, Pseudocochlodinium profundisulcus gen. et sp. nov., and its LSU rRNA gene based genetic diversity and geographical distribution
Author(s)
Z Hu; N Xu; H Gu; Z Chai; K Takahashi; Zhun Li; Y Deng; M Iwataki; K Matsuoka; Y Z Tang
Bibliographic Citation
Harmful Algae, vol. 108, pp. 102098-102098
Publication Year
2021
Abstract
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by an unknown dinoflagellate species have frequently occurred in the Pearl River Estuary, China Since 2006. These blooms were associated with severe water discoloration and economic losses, ranging from several km2 to 300 km2 with the maximum recorded cell density being 2.77 × 107 cells?L?1. This unknown dinoflagellate species was initially identified as Cochlodinium geminatum and subsequently reclassified as Polykrikos geminatus. However, after reviewing the original descriptions for Cochlodinium geminatum sensu Schutt (1895) and the genus Polykrikos, we considered this species is incongruent with their original descriptions. Further morphological examinations and particularly phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU and partial LSU rRNA genes of isolates and resting cysts from China and Japan prompted us to consider it a new species of a new genus. This new species was proposed to be Pseudocochlodinium profundisulcus gen. et sp. nov., based on its open comma-shaped apical structure complex (ASC), cingulum encircling the cell less than one and a half turns, a deep sulcus with a torsion of a half turn, either single cell or cell chain consisting of two cells with the same number of nuclei and zooids, the resting cyst bearing lobed ornaments, and the evolutionary distances from Polykrikos (and others) on the phylogenetic trees constructed using the concatenated SSU and partial LSU rRNA gene sequences. Metabarcoding investigation of surface sediment samples collected in China revealed that the species to be widely present along the entire Chinese coast with the highest abundance in the South China Sea. Further re-analysis of the Tara Oceans metabarcoding dataset targeting the SSU rRNA gene V9 domain suggested a global distribution of this new genus. Phylogenetic analyses on 46 OTUs (average length: ∼552 bases) of its LSU rRNA gene sequences (mainly D1-D2 domains) obtained from surface sediment samples revealed intraspecific genetic diversity of this species. Interestingly, based on the different distributions and the abundance of these OTUs along the coast of China, this species appeared to have expanded its distribution from the South China Sea to the northern Yellow Sea, or preferred a warm water habitat. We consider that the present work improves the taxonomy and provides important insights into the biogeography of Pseudocochlodinium profundisulcus.?
Keyword
Apical structure complexCochlodinium geminatumGeographical distributionLSU rRNA genePseudocochlodinium profundisulcusResting cystSSU rRNA gene
ISSN
1568-9883
Publisher
Elsevier
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2021.102098
Type
Article
Appears in Collections:
Jeonbuk Branch Institute > Biological Resource Center > 1. Journal Articles
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