Evaluation of the T cell and B cell response following the administration of COVID-19 vaccines in Korea

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Evaluation of the T cell and B cell response following the administration of COVID-19 vaccines in Korea
K Widyasari; J Jang; S Lee; Taejoon Kang; S Kim
Bibliographic Citation
Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1013-1024
Publication Year
Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been a worldwide concern since 2019. Vaccines are predicted to be crucial in preventing further outbreaks. The development and kinetics of immune responses determine the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: We measured interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels upon administering homologous adenovirus vector-based (ChAdOx1-S [AZ], Ad26.COV2.S [JAN]), mRNA-based (BNT162b2 [PF]; mRNA-1273 [MO]), and heterologous (AZ/PF) vaccines in healthy Korean individuals using two IFN-γ release assays: the Covi-FERON ELISA and T-SPOT Discovery SARS-CoV-2 assay. B cell responses were evaluated by assessing the production of neutralizing antibodies by surrogate virus neutralization assay. The immune response among the vaccine groups was compared after adjusting the vaccination dose and interactions between each group. Results: AZ triggered the highest T cell response after the first dose but showed instability after the second. PF and MO yielded stable and higher increments of T and B cell responses compared to AZ. MO yielded a higher immune response than PF. JAN yielded T and B cell responses at lower levels than the other vaccines. The booster dose triggered significant increases in the T and B cell responses and is therefore needed to protect against SARS-CoV-2 given the possibility of waning immune responses. Conclusion: Administering two doses of mRNA vaccines provides the most effective results among the administered vaccines in triggering the immune response specific to SARS-CoV-2 in healthy Korean individuals. Administration of booster doses demonstrated a significant increase in the immune response and may provide longer protection against SARS-CoV-2.
COVID-19VaccineBoosterInterferon-gamma (IFN-g)Neutralizing antibody
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Division of Research on National Challenges > Bionanotechnology Research Center > 1. Journal Articles
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