Involvement of CYP3A1, 2B1, and 2E1 in C-8 hydroxylation and CYP 1A2 and flavin-containing monooxygenase in N-demethylation of caffeine: identified by using inducer treated rat liver microsomes that are characterized with testosterone metabolic patterns
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- Involvement of CYP3A1, 2B1, and 2E1 in C-8 hydroxylation and CYP 1A2 and flavin-containing monooxygenase in N-demethylation of caffeine: identified by using inducer treated rat liver microsomes that are characterized with testosterone metabolic patterns
- Woon Gye Chung; Hyung-Keun Roh; Hwan Mook Kim; Young Nam Cha
- Bibliographic Citation
- Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 113, pp. 1-14
- Publication Year
- Caffeine (CA) is oxidized by rat liver microsomal enzymes to theobromine (TB), paraxanthine (PX), and theophylline (TP) by N-demethylation and to trimethylurate (TMU) by C-8 hydroxylation. In order to identify the specific enzymes responsible for productions of these primary CA metabolites, liver microsomes enriched with various isoforms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) are prepared by pretreatment of rats with several inducers. The specific increases in various CYP or FMO activities are identified with the diagnostic testosterone metabolic patterns or the thiobenzamide S-oxidation assay. They are then employed to metabolize the CA. Liver microsomes isolated from rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB-microsomes) did not have increased FMO activity but had increased activities for hydroxylating the testosterone at 6β-(CYP3A1), 16β-(CYP2B1), and 2β-(CYP3A1) positions. This PB-microsomes had increased activity for TMU production from CA (result of C-8 hydroxylation). Liver microsomes isolated from rats pretreated with acetone (AC-microsomes) had a normal level of FMO activity but had enhanced rates of 6β-(CYP3A1) and 2β-(CYP3A1) hydroxylations of testosterone. The AC-microsomes again had increased activity for production of TMU. Similarly, the liver microsomes isolated from rats pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX-microsomes) had a normal level of FMO activity but had enhanced rates of forming 6β- and 2β-hydroxytestosterone (CYP3A1) as well as androstenedione (CYP3A1). The DEX-microsomes again had increased activity for production of TMU only. Liver microsomes isolated from rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC-microsomes), however, had increased FMO activity and also enhanced rates of forming the 7α-(CYP1A1/2, and 2A1), 6β-(CYP3A1), and 2β-(CYP3A1) hydroxytestosterone. The MC-microsomes had increased activity for producing all of the four primary metabolites of CA, i.e. the N-demethylation metabolites like TB, PX, and TP, as well as the C-8 hydroxylation metabolite TMU. By the process of association of the obtained results, liver microsomes with increased contents of CYP2B1, 3A1, and 2E1 could catalyze the C-8 hydroxylation at an increased rate producing increased amount of TMU. Increased productions of CA N-demethylation metabolites (TB, PX, and TP) are, however, catalyzed by the increased activities of CYP1A2 and FMO which are associated uniquely with the MC-microsomes.
- Caffeine oxidation; Microsomes; Inducers; Cytochrome P450; Flavin-containing monooxygenase
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