Crystal structures of thermostable xylose isomerases from Thermus caldophilus and Thermus thermophilus: possible structural determinants of thermostability
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- Crystal structures of thermostable xylose isomerases from Thermus caldophilus and Thermus thermophilus: possible structural determinants of thermostability
- Chang Soo Chang; Byoung Chul Park; Dae Sil Lee; Se Won Suh
- Bibliographic Citation
- Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 288, no. 4, pp. 623-634
- Publication Year
- The crystal structures of highly thermostable xylose isomerases from Thermus thermophilus (TthXI) and Thermus caldophilus (TcaXI), both with the optimum reaction temperature of 90°C, have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The model of TcaXI has been refined to an R-factor of 17.8% for data extending to 2.3 ? and that of TthXI to 17.1% for data extending to 2.2 ?. The tetrameric arrangement of subunits characterized by the 222-symmetry and the tertiary fold of each subunit in both TcaXI and TthXI are basically the same as in other xylose isomerases. Each monomer is composed of two domains. Domain I (residues 1 to 321) folds into the (β/α)8-barrel. Domain II (residues 322 to 387), lacking β-strands, makes extensive contacts with domain I of an adjacent subunit. Each monomer of TcaXI contains ten β-strands, 15 α-helices, and six 310-helices, while that of TthXI contains ten β-strands, 16 α-helices, and five 310-helices. Although the electron density does not indicate the presence of bound metal ions in the present models of both TcaXI and TthXI, the active site residues show the conserved structural features. In order to understand the structural basis for thermostability of these enzymes, their structures have been compared with less thermostable XIs from Arthrobacter B3728 and Actinoplanes missouriensis (AXI and AmiXI), with the optimum reaction temperatures of 80°C and 75°C, respectively. Analyses of various factors that may affect protein thermostability indicate that the possible structural determinants of the enhanced thermostability of TcaXI/TthXI over AXI/AmiXI are (i) an increase in ion pairs and ion-pair networks, (ii) a decrease in the large inter-subunit cavities, (iii) a removal of potential deamidation/isoaspartate formation sites, and (iv) a shortened loop.
- crystal structurexylose isomeraseThermus caldophilusThermus thermophilusthermostability
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