We purified an antibacterial substance from larvae of the saw fly, Acantholyda parki S., and identified its molecular structure as p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde. We then synthesized it by reduction of p-hydroxycinnamic acid. The antibacterial activity of the synthetic p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde was equal to that of the authentic substance. This molecule was found to have a broad antibacterial spectrum against not only Gram-negative, but also Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, it showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. We suggest that this substance may play a role in the defense system of this insect. This is the first report of p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde of animal origin.