Blastocyst viability and generation of transgenic cattle following freezing of in vitro produced, DNA-injected embryos

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Blastocyst viability and generation of transgenic cattle following freezing of in vitro produced, DNA-injected embryos
Yong Mhan Han; S J Kim; Jung Sun Park; In Young Park; Yong Kook Kang; Chul Sang Lee; Deog Bon Koo; Tae Hoon Lee; Dae Yeol Yu; Y H Kim; K J Lee; Kyung Kwang Lee
Bibliographic Citation
Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 53-63
Publication Year
This study examined whether the viability, determined in vitro, of DNA-injected bovine embryos produced in vitro was affected by freezing, and if the frozen embryos developed to term following transfer to recipients. In vitro fertilized zygotes were injected with the pBL1 gene and then co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) in CR1aa medium. Embryos were prepared for cryopreservation by exposure to a 10% (v/v) glycerol solution, loaded into 0.25 ml straws and then frozen by conventional slow freezing. Thawing was by rapid warming in water (37°C) and embryos were rehydrated in PBS diluents of 6%, 3% and 0% (v/v) glycerol supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose and 0.5% (w/v) BSA. In Experiment 1, blastocysts that developed from DNA-injected embryos were individually classified into three morphological groups and three stages of development prior to freezing. DNA-injected blastocysts of excellent quality at freezing showed a higher survival rate (78.8 ± 10.6%) after thawing than those of good (60.9 ± 16.4%) or fair (12.5 ± 5.9%) quality (P < 0.05). Post-thaw survival rate, judged in vitro, increased with more advanced stage of blastocyst development at freezing (early 48.8 ± 15.9%, mid 52.1 ± 12.6% and expanded 71.2 ± 1.1; P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, the frozen/thawed embryos were transferred to recipients to examine in vivo viability. Following transfer of one or two embryos per recipient, pregnancy rates at 60 days of gestation were 13.6% (13/96) for frozen embryos and 26.5% (43/162) for fresh embryos (P < 0.05). of the 12 live calves born from the frozen/thawed embryos, two males (18.3%) were transgenic. None of the live-born calves derived from fresh embryos exhibited the transgene. One of transgenic bulls did not produce transgenic sperm. Three out of 23 calves (13.0%) produced from cows inseminated with semen of the other bull were transgenic, suggesting that this animal was a germ-line mosaic. These studies indicated that the viability of in vitro produced, DNA-injected bovine blastocysts was affected by freezing and by both the quality and stage of development of the embryo prior to freezing. The generation of transgenic cattle demonstrates that it is feasible to freeze DNA-injected, in vitro produced embryos.
transmissioncattleembryologyDNA injectioncryopreservationtransgenic
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