First report of zonate leaf spot of Vigna vexillata var. tsusimensis caused by Cristulariella moricola

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First report of zonate leaf spot of Vigna vexillata var. tsusimensis caused by Cristulariella moricola
Hyang Burm Lee; Chang Jin Kim
Bibliographic Citation
Plant Disease, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 440-440
Publication Year
A zonate leaf spot disease on a wild bean variety, Vigna vexillata L. var. tsusimensis Mat., occurred in the patch fields and foothills of Chungnam and Kyonggi districts in Korea during late September, October, and early November of 1999 to 2001. The zonate lesions were particularly prevalent in October following periods of heavy dew accumulation. Initial symptoms were small, circular lesions with darkbrown marginal rings that later developed into large spots with characteristic target-shaped rings. The spots were gray to bright or blackish brown, progressed rapidly, and sometimes fused together to form lesions of up to 20 mm in diameter. Sporophores on the natural host were generally hypophyllous but sometimes amphigenous, abundant on large spots, fewer on small spots, solitary, erect, easily detachable, and up to 864 μm long. The upper portion of the sporophore is considered an individual conidium and consisted of a pyramidal head that was fusiform to ventricose and cristulate, 495 to 534 μm long, and 210 to 290 μm wide at the broadest point. Branches within the pyramidal head were short and compact, and dichotomously or trichotomously branched. The central axis within the conidium was hyaline, broad, septate, tapering toward an acute apex, and sometimes constricted at the basal septum. Conidiophores were 272 to 330 μm long and up to 24 μm wide. The fungus was identified as Cristulariella moricola (Hino) Redhead based on morphological characteristics (1,2). The fungus was isolated from Vigna leaf spots, placed on 2% water agar or potato dextrose agar (PDA), and maintained on PDA amended with 2% Vigna leaf extract. For pathogenicity tests, 4- to 5-week-old leaves of V. vexillata var. tsusimensis were surface-sterilized in 1% NaOCl. Agar disks (approximately 10 mm diameter) containing mycelia of the fungus were placed on the upper leaf surface. The inoculated plants (two leaflets per plant × 2) were then sprayed with distilled water, covered with premoistened polyethylene bags, and incubated at 15 to 25°C. Within 5 days, small leaf spots appeared that were similar to those originally observed on all inoculated leaflets. Uninoculated control leaves exposed to the same environmental conditions remained healthy. C. moricola was consistently reisolated from the infected leaves. The hyphomycete fungus C. moricola has been known to cause a bull's eye or zonate leaf spot and defoliation on woody and annual plants, including at least 73 host species and 36 families distributed in the central and eastern United States and Japan (1). In Asia, the occurrence of Cristulariella spp. on several hosts has been reported only in Taiwan and Japan (3,4). No species in the genus has ever been reported from Korea. To our knowledge, V. vexillata var. tsusimensis represents a previously unreported host for C. moricola. References: (1) M. C. Niedbalski et al. Mycologia 75:988, 1983. (2) S. A. Redhead. Mycologia 71:1248, 1979. (3). H. J. Su and S. C. Leu. Plant Dis. 67:915, 1983. (4) T. Yokoyama and K. Tubaki. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Jpn. 15:189, 1974.
Amer Phytopathological Soc
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