Origin of multicellular pollen and pollen embryos in cultured anthers of pepper(Capsicum annuum)

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Origin of multicellular pollen and pollen embryos in cultured anthers of pepper(Capsicum annuum)
M Z Kim; J A Kim; M C Yoon; Do Il Choi; K M Lee
Bibliographic Citation
Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 63-72
Publication Year
Anthers of Capsicum annuum L. were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.1 mg l-1 NAA and 0.1 mg l-1 kinetin. Inoculated anthers were subjected to 31°C and development of microspores in anthers of varying stages was observed cytologically using 4′-6-diamidino- 2-phenylindol-2HCl (DAPI). Pepper was characterized by a strong asynchrony of pollen development within a single anther. Percentage of pollen at different stages changed with the culture period, and the proportion of dead pollen increased drastically from day 2 after culture. Microspores that were cultured at the late-uninucleate stage followed one of two developmental pathways. In the more common route, the first sporophytic division was asymmetric and produced what appeared to be a typical bicellular pollen. Embryogenic pollen was formed by repeated divisions of the vegetative nucleus. In the second pathway, which occurred in fewer microspores, the first division was symmetric and both nuclei divided repeatedly to form embryogenic pollen. In early-bicellular pollen, sporophytic pollen was produced through division of the vegetative nucleus. In mid-bicellular pollen, the generative nucleus may undergo division to produce two or more sperm-like nuclei. However, division of the generative nucleus alone to form the embryo was never observed. The anther stage optimal for embryo production contained a large proportion (>75%) of early-binucleate pollen. Associations were found among the percentage of early-binucleate pollen, the frequency of embryogenic multinucleate pollen, and the yield of pollen embryos.
AndrogenesisGenerative nucleusPepperPollen embryoVegetative nucleus
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