In an attempt to develop an edible vaccine, we transformed a recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene encoding the middle protein of HBV that contains the surface S and preS2 antigen into potato by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The HBV gene was under control of either the CaMV 35S promoter, the double 35S promoter with the AIMV 5′ non-translated leader sequence, or the tuber-specific patatin promoter. HBV mRNA levels were higher with the 35S promoter than with the double 35S and patatin promoters; however, the levels of the S and preS2 antigen in the transformed tubers were higher with the patatin promoter than with the CaMV 35S and double promoters. The levels of preS2 antigen produced are the highest reported to date. Transgenic potato tubers were fed to mice, and the mice showed an immune response against the HBV S antigen.