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- Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and AP-1 by polysaccharide isolated from the radix of Platycodon grandiflorum in RAW 264.7 cells
- Yeo Dae Yoon; Jong Soon Kang; Sang Bae Han; Song Kyu Park; Hyun Sun Lee; J S Kang; Hwan Mook Kim
- Bibliographic Citation
- International Immunopharmacology, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1477-1487
- Publication Year
- The root of Platycodon grandiflorum has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases in oriental medicine. Our previous study showed that the PG, a polysaccharide isolated from P. grandiflorum, activates macrophages via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the associated biological mechanisms are not fully understood. To elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for the macrophage activation, we investigated the effect of PG on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with PG produced a marked induction of AP-1 DNA binding activity. Moreover, all three MAPKs were activated by PG, and PG-induced activation of MAPKs was abrogated by the treatment of PD98059, curcumin, and SB203580, specific inhibitors of MEK-1/2, stress-activated protein kinases/jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and p38 MAP kianse, respectively. The induction of AP-1 DNA binding activity by PG was also inhibited by these MAPK inhibitors. Moreover, supershift analysis identified that JunB and Fra-1 are major components involved in the PG-mediated induction of AP-1 DNA binding. Additionally, curcumin and SB203580 suppressed PG-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas PD98059 showed an inhibitory effect only on the TNF-α production. Taken together, these results suggest that macrophage activation by PG is mediated, at least in part, by MAPKs and AP-1.
- AP-1MacrophageMAPKPlatycodon grandiflorum
- Appears in Collections:
- Ochang Branch Institute > Division of National Bio-Infrastructure > Laboratory Animal Resource & Research Center > 1. Journal Articles
Ochang Branch Institute > Natural Product Research Center > 1. Journal Articles
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