Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a biologically heterogeneous disease of the hematopoietic system characterized by a clonal accumulation of immature blast cells in bone marrow. We used a proteomic approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to search for biomarkers related to the complete remission (CR) state of AML patients. We detected one AML-related protein, which was identified as the B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) protein that belongs to anti-proliferative protein family. In the CR state of AML-M2 and M3 patients (by French-American-British subtype classification), the BTG1 protein was upregulated in bone marrow mononuclear cells. It was also expressed robustly in normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. In addition, the BTG1 levels in AML-M2 patients in a non-remission state after therapy did not increase as they did before therapy. Overexpression of BTG1 mRNA was also observed in the CR state of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated AML-M3 patients and ATRA-treated HL-60 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that BTG1 may play a role in the differentiation process of myeloid cells and can therefore be used as a potential treatment-related biomarkerfor monitoring the remission status of AML-M2 and M3 patients.