One-chip electronic detection of DNA hybridization using precision impedance-based CMOS array sensor

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One-chip electronic detection of DNA hybridization using precision impedance-based CMOS array sensor
K H Lee; J O Lee; Mi Jin Sohn; B Lee; S H Choi; S K Kim; J B Yoon; G H Cho
Bibliographic Citation
Biosensors & Bioelectronics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1373-1379
Publication Year
This paper describes a label-free and fully electronic detection method of DNA hybridization, which is achieved through the use of a 16 × 8 microarray sensor in conjunction with a new type of impedance spectroscopy constructed with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The impedance-based method is based on changes in the reactive capacitance and the charge-transfer resistance after hybridization with complementary DNA targets. In previously published label-free techniques, the measured capacitance presented unstable capacitive properties due to the parallel resistance that is not infinite and can cause a leakage by discharging the charge on the capacitor. This paper presents an impedance extraction method that uses excitation by triangular wave voltage, which enables a reliable measurement of both C and R producing a highly sensitive sensor with a stable operation independent of external variables. The system was fabricated in an industrial 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly CMOS process, integrating working electrodes and readout electronics into one chip. The integrated readout, which uses a parasitic insensitive integrator, achieves an enlarged detection range and improved noise performance. The maximum average relative variations of C and R are 31.5% and 68.6%, respectively, after hybridization with a 1 μM target DNA. The proposed sensor allows quantitative evaluation of the molecule densities on the chip with distinguishable variation in the impedance. This fully electronic microsystem has great potential for use with bioanalytical tools and point-of-care diagnosis.
BiosensorCapacitanceDNA detectionDNA hybridizationPNAResistance
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