Gangliosides play important roles in the control of several biological processes, including proliferation and transmembrane signaling. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of ganglioside GM1 on the proliferation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs). The proliferation rate of miPSCs was lower than in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs).Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis showed that the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase in miPSCs was lower than that in mESCs. GM1 was expressed in mESCs, but not miPSCs. To confirm the role of GM1 in miPSC proliferation, miPSCs were treated with GM1. GM1-treated miPSCs exhibited increased cell proliferation and a larger number of cells in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was increased in GM1- treated miPSCs.