Recent advances in the CRISPR genome editing tool set

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Title
Recent advances in the CRISPR genome editing tool set
Author(s)
Su Bin Moon; Do Yon Kim; Jeong Heon KoYong Sam Kim
Bibliographic Citation
Experimental and Molecular Medicine, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 130-130
Publication Year
2019
Abstract
Genome editing took a dramatic turn with the development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) system. The CRISPR-Cas system is functionally divided into classes 1 and 2 according to the composition of the effector genes. Class 2 consists of a single effector nuclease, and routine practice of genome editing has been achieved by the development of the Class 2 CRISPR-Cas system, which includes the type II, V, and VI CRISPR-Cas systems. Types II and V can be used for DNA editing, while type VI is employed for RNA editing. CRISPR techniques induce both qualitative and quantitative alterations in gene expression via the double-stranded breakage (DSB) repair pathway, base editing, transposase-dependent DNA integration, and gene regulation using the CRISPR-dCas or type VI CRISPR system. Despite significant technical improvements, technical challenges should be further addressed, including insufficient indel and HDR efficiency, off-target activity, the large size of Cas, PAM restrictions, and immune responses. If sophisticatedly refined, CRISPR technology will harness the process of DNA rewriting, which has potential applications in therapeutics, diagnostics, and biotechnology.
ISSN
I000-0028
Publisher
Springer-Nature Pub Group
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-019-0339-7
Type
Article
Appears in Collections:
Synthetic Biology and Bioengineering Research Institute > Genome Editing Research Center > 1. Journal Articles
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