The Drosophila sNPF gene regulates growth through the ERK-insulin pathway. sNPF encodes a precursor protein that is processed and produces biologically active sNPF peptides. However, the functions of these peptides are not known. In Drosophila neuronal cells in culture and in flies in vivo, sNPF1 and sNPF2 activated the ERK-insulin pathway and regulated body growth. In addition, the sNPF precursor and the processed sNPF peptide were co-localized in the neurons of the central nervous system. These results indicate that sNPF1 and sNPF2 peptides processed from the sNPF precursor are sufficient for regulating body growth through the ERK-insulin pathway in Drosophila.